Europe was to be saved by monotheism, or the One God. Up until this point, religion had been pagan. The first spirituality had been animist and nature based, with the physical world having a spirit world in parallel.
This led to animal spirits and intermediaries between the two with shamanic mystics, who went into trance. As the city formed, the religious ethic moved from nature to society, with priestly castes and eventually God-Kings.
Monotheism gained ground with the Hebrews, where, according to tradition, Abraham communed with God. Later, tradition states that Moses led his people out of enslavement in Egypt to Israel, God giving them the Ten Commandments. The Creation story had already gained ground, and here, for the first time, paganism was usurped by God being ABOVE nature, and man lord over it. Tradition again states that the Hebrews formed their own empire, eventually subjugated by the Babylonians and then the Romans.
In the early years AD Jesus Christ grew, went on his mission, and was crucified. His followers birthed Christianity, based on the idea that Jesus had been the Son of God, and eventually forming the office of the Pope in Rome. By the time of Constantine, Christianity was well established, causing him to Christianize the empire, formulating its Creed, including the Trinity, at the Council of Nicaea.
With the fall of Rome, Christianity was saved by Augustine of Hippo, who theorized that the ‘City of God’ was above any political authority. At the time, Europe was descending into the Dark Ages, with migrations such as the Goths, Vandals, Angles, Saxons and later Vikings, who would ravage Europe with their long ships. But clusters of Christianity remained, such as the Celtic Church in Ireland. Missionaries went out into the dark and eventually Christianized the continent.
Meanwhile, another branch of monotheism was about to rise in the Middle East. Muhammad was born about 570AD into an Arab world full of idolatry. About 610 he had a vision, had the Koran dictated to him, realized the inevitability of moral judgment, and dedicated himself to bringing Allah to the world.Setting up the first Islamic community in Mecca, they were attacked. Eventually victorious, Islam was to expand throughout the East and North Africa, going on to pioneer the sciences and learning, and reaching a Golden Age centred on Baghdad. The expansion was only stopped at Byzantium, and, in 732AD, at the Battle of Poitiers, between Spain and France, by the Frank, Charles Martel.
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