Physics was to rise with Galileo – funnily enough by realizing that things fall, and why they do so. In effect, about 1608 he experimented with falling bodies, realizing that they fell at the same speed, regardless of weight. Going on to realize the forces involved with a pendulum, he had provided evidence of a mystery that had to be resolved.
Galileo died in 1642, and in that year Isaac Newton was born. Working on optics and devising the calculus, Newton went on to validate science by devising provable laws of motion and bodies that led to a mechanistic view of the world and the universe. Becoming known as the first great scientist, he gave us the theory of universal gravitation, where all bodies exert a force on all other bodies proportional to their size. In such a way, bodies are held in place, or are influenced by, the gravitational pull of other bodies.
Extending his work into motion, Newton further placed laws upon action, arguing that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Following Newton, the world could never be the same again.
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